Tuesday, May 12, 2015

Crowdfunding capacity for peer production


Disclaimer: This blog entry reflects the thoughts of the author and does not speak on behalf of the Sensorica OVN. 
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They did it again!

In the spring of 2015, the SENSORICA network delivered another important proof of concept for commons-based peer production. We demonstrated that equipment for peer production can be endogenously crowdfunded.

Everyone today knows about crowdfunding. In case you are just returning from a trip to Mars, crowdfunding is a new way to raise funds which involves hundreds or even thousands of individuals, the crowd. If you need money for a venture, instead of going to the bank for a loan or getting venture capital you can now use websites like Goteo, IndiegogoKickstarter, etc. You present your project on one of these platforms and ask people from around the world to fund you. Crowdfunding is either a donation scheme, people help you to achieve something without expecting much in return for themselves, only a good feeling for having contributed to a good cause, or a pre-sale scheme, people give you money upfront for a service or a product that doesn't need to be finished before the crowdfunding, that you will deliver a few months later. There is also crowdfunding for equity, where people give you money in exchange of shares in your venture, but very few countries have permissive laws for it.

You can find a lot of stories about individuals or small groups who raised hundreds of thousands of dollars for their product ideas. This shows that crowdfunding democratizes innovation.

It didn't take long before companies caught up with this trend, realizing that they could not only finance the productization phase (transforming a prototype into a manufacturable product at a competitive price) but also get immediate and valuable feedback from the market (if people finance you before you even have a finished product that means that you have a market, and they might even tell you how to improve your product).

So, before we see what SENSORICA did different, let's review a few important features of crowdfunding in general.

Most crowdfunding is used as a pre-sale scheme, Kickstarter being the most popular platform. Goteo is more for open source projects, or for projects that have a social impact. Crowdfunding for equity seems to be adequate for financing infrastructure or capacity development, but it is still in its infancy. 

Almost all the crowdfunding mechanisms are dissociated from the ventures that are using them. They are centralized platforms owned by a classical organization that acts as a mediator between project initiators and their support crowd. 
The crowdfunding model is fueled by three types of actors: the project initiator who proposes the idea and/or project to be funded; individuals or groups who support the idea; and a moderating organization (the "platform") that brings the parties together to launch the idea.  [Wikipedia]
There are also a few examples of self-crowdfunding, where organizations run their campaign on their own platform. This practice is problematic though, because people see in it a conflict of interest. When a third-party that specializes in crowdfunding is used, people trust that the same rules will be applied to everyone and that the data displayed during the process reflects reality.

But things are changing very fast now. Within a year or so, crowdfunding will be implemented on p2p infrastructures based on block chain technology. This means that the centralized crowdfunding platforms (the website that lives on a proprietary server or cloud, Kickstarter for example) will become entirely a p2p processes (will not be websites hosted on a private server or cloud anymore, instead the information will live in a bunch of interconnected machines, individually owned by everyone who uses the system). Simply put, the block chain technology (and who knows what will follow next) decentralizes funding even further. If traditional crowdfunding allows people to fund each other using a centralized proprietary platform, this new technology eliminates the proprietary platform, the company in the middle, and  puts the same people in charge of the process. See more here.

Born in 2003, crowdfunding is already making a leap forward, leaving platforms like Kickstarter wondering about their own survival. The new p2p (or real) crowdfunding, based on block chain technology, can give much more flexibility to projects or ventures. The problem is that its time has not come yet. It is technologically possible, but the world around it hasn't advanced far enough for it to have a proper ground for implementation. This is where SENSORICA and its proof of concept comes in.  

SENSORICA is not a typical organization. It is an open value network. It is an open network that does peer production. It is a cluster of open enterprises. It is, in my opinion, the most audacious attempt to implement commons-based peer production of hardware, started in February 2011, one year and 3 months after Satoshi Nakamoto published his paper "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System". It is the furthest humanity has gone into hard core peer production, building peer-run physical labs, peer governance and normative systems, methodologies for open product development, as well as legal structures compatible with all that. SENSORICA is the proper type of organization for p2p (or real) crowdfunding.  

Recent technologies like Ethereum, which also builds on the block chain technology, have made possible new types of economic entities, the so-called DACs, for Distributed Autonomous Organizations. The first implementations of DACs are quite simple, service based, see for example Peertracks. But this technology will very soon mature to fulfill the needs of p2p hardware innovation and production, which is very complex. This will most probably become the infrastructure on which open value networks like SENSORICA will be built in the not so far future.

All that to say that in parallel with the continuous development of crowdfunding there is also a continuous development of organizations, following the same philosophy, based on the same logic, enabled by the same technology. The two movements are about to merge into a coherent economic system, operating on new principles. We are already passed half way into the transition and we can already see what's on the other side.

So what did SENSORICA demonstrated? Sorry for holding it, I am trying to save you the best for the end  : )

SENSORICA used its network resource planning and value accounting system (NRP-VAS), in a context of peer production, to endogenously crowdfund a piece of equipment for the first time in its history. In other words, this is the first time a p2p network that is focused on hardware innovation and production has used a crowdfunding mechanism part of its own infrastructure, not as a service from an external platform, centralized or not.

We used the NRP-VAS to co-finance a $4,000 3D printer. 11 SENSORICA affiliates have contributed to this purchase. The example might seem insignificant for the untrained eye, but there is a lot more behind it.

First, there is the issue of trust. Most of these participant affiliates have never seen each other. Two of them live in the US, the rest live in Canada. Some of them are so far away that they will not even be able to use the 3D printer. We passed the trust hurdle. Participation was a bit slow in the beginning, but after we reached a critical mass it got easier. This is trust in a system, trust generated by processes, trust generated through openness and transparency, not so much trust in each other. This is what makes a system scalable and reproducible.

Second, there is the complexity that comes with co-purchasing. Who owns it? What's the agreement between the co-owners? Who can use it and under what conditions? Who is going to pay for maintenance? How are we going to deal with community use, and commercial use, and other types of uses? It is not simple, but this is what technology is good for, reducing complexity or hiding it behind user interfaces.

We created a co-owner agreement and we implemented new functionality within our NRP-VAS to handle the printer's use logging and to perform calculations to account for the material used in the printing process, usage time, technical assistance, etc. For example, is someone makes commercial use of the 3D printer the cost is split into:

  • cost of the material used, 
  • some % will go into a maintenance budget account for the 3D printer, 
  • some % will go to a general infrastructure maintenance and development account,
  • some % will go to pay back the co-owners (the agreement stipulates that once they are paid back plus 20% to cover their risk, the 3D printer becomes part of the pool of shareables), 
  • some money will go to pay a technician, if needed.    

All that complexity is absorbed by the technology that we are developing.

NOTESENSORICA's NRP-VAS is not decentralized, it is not using block chain technology, because this new p2p infrastructure is not ready yet to handle all the complexity that the open value network is dealing with. This will probably come in two years from now. Moreover, when SENSORICA was created the block chain technology was still in its embryonic state. Therefore, it is probably difficult for the untrained eye to understand how this new SENSORICA proof of concept fits with new pure p2p processes. Think of SENSORICA as p2p at the socio-economic level, but not entirely at the infrastructure level. This is still a work in progress.

This crowdfunding endogenous to an open value network was implemented using the Custodian's financial tools, a Paypal account (open the webpage where the contributions where gathered). See definition of a Custodian. All the contributions were recorded into a virtual account on SENSORICA's NRP-VAS, specifically opened for the purchase of the 3D printer. Once the printer was purchased this account balance went back to 0$.

The lesson here is that an open value network is able to not only crowdsource and crowdfund innovation and production, but also infrastructure development. The tools used by SENSORICA, a p2p organization at the socio-economic level, are not entirely p2p, but we are building understanding and valuable experience, and we are anxiously waiting for the block chain technology to mature.


By Tiberius Brastaviceanu
By AllOfUs

Open value networks and global economic fairness

Disclaimer: This blog entry reflects the thoughts of the author and does not speak on behalf of the Sensorica OVN. 
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davidsluka
In February 2011, economic fairness became a real possibility with the launch of SENSORICA. The new economic model proposed by this network promised open access to economic activities for everyone in the world, with a system for fair redistribution of benefits, based on merits. 

SENSORICA is an open value network. People propose projects and develop them in collaboration with others. The affiliates use open project development methodologies and generate tasks that are made available for anyone in the world. The time, the cash and any material resource that are used during the execution of a task are logged. A contribution accounting system compiles all the input to projects and displays a profile of the economic activity. If the project becomes a commercial venture the revenues are redistributed to all the participants, without exception, in proportion to everyone's contribution. The venture belongs entirely to the participants, anyone can join, any time. We call these ventures open enterprises. SENSORICA is an incubator of many open enterprises. 

Since the inception of SENSORICA we spent a lot of time developing the open value network model, building infrastructure, designing new methodologies, refining the open governance, implementing a proper legal structure, and developing open new technologies. In 2015, SENSORICA is closer than ever to become an economic success, with a few projects to be crowdfunded during the summer and a few service offerings that have already generated revenue.
This post is not about revenue generation and sustainability. The main goal is to illustrate economic fairness, to show the world how we are fulfilling our promise. 

In January 2015 Atelier Barda, a group of architects and designers from Montreal, trusted SENSORICA with a contract to design an interactive imaging system, to be installed in Forillon National Park, in Gaspesie QC, Canada, which is administered by Parks Canada, a branch of the federal government. The project was executed in an open way. Three SENSORICA affiliates answered the call and delivered successfully, exceeding the client's expectations, who was a bit skeptical in the beginning, knowing that he was dealing with a new type of organization. One of these affiliates, Abran, lives in Pakistan. The project was coordinated using SENSORICA's new open service providing methodology, mediated by our virtual infrastructure.

In the end, the revenue was distributed according to everyone's contribution, and Abran was paid as if he was working and living in Canada. 

credit to Massimo Sestini—Polaris
Europe is now dealing with a major social problem caused by waves of immigrants coming from Africa. This crisis is exacerbated by the drama surrounding the death of a few hundreds of these unfortunate people, who are desperate enough to put their lives in danger by crossing the Mediterranean sea, using inadequate means, lead by human traffickers who are mostly interested in profiteering. A social problem coupled with a humanitarian crisis that keeps politicians on their toes and pushes them to use extreme means, to militarize the Mediterranean sea using UN forces. Are these desperate human beings invaders? Are they the new enemies of Europe? Or are they the result of colonialism and victims years of political interference and economic exploitation? Are guns the solution to this problem? Or more economic fairness?

While our western governments, who created the problem in the first place, make it even worse, we are developing infra-national economic structures, a peer to peer economy, to address the problem at its core.

Tuesday, February 10, 2015

Problems in peer production

Disclaimer: This blog entry reflects the thoughts of the author and does not speak on behalf of the Sensorica OVN. 

Thursday, May 15, 2014

Hybrid models, trying to bridge corporate models with open innovation

Disclaimer: This blog entry reflects the thoughts of the author and does not speak on behalf of the Sensorica OVN.  
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On May 14th SENSORICA and the OVN model were presented (by Tibi) at POINT - Atelier de cocréation et d’innovation. We also actively participated in a workshop where attendees were given the chance to understand the value accounting system and to apply it to a fictional case (see embedded document below). Five workshops were running in parallel on different topics around open innovation. We got great feedback and we were pleased to see that other groups picked up the value accounting system concept and integrated it into their own cases, along with other ideas.  

Among the participants, we had representatives of companies and consortia, as well as academics, all eager to learn more about open innovation. The working definition of open innovation was very broad. I (Tibi) presented the more restricted concept of open source innovation

One interesting observation
People are trying to bridge open source with the corporate model by creating hybrid models. It seems to me (Tibi) that the proposed hybrid models were lacking a deep understanding of the organic nature of open communities. Almost all of them featured mechanisms of control and value capture that can compromise the sustainability of the open community, which is narrowly instrumentalized to supply innovation to the box (i.e. a classical entity, corporation or other, that has well-defined boundaries such as a fixed number of employees bounded by contractual relations, limited budgets, limited production capacity, etc.). Arduino, a working hybrid model, seems to work well. But not everyone is able to walk that fine balance between extracting value from an open community and nurture this open community. 

In the end, these people are invested in the box and their natural reaction is to preserve it, while they are trying to rip the benefits of open innovation. The natural state of open innovation is open source. This happens within communities or networks, which are open (access to participation), transparent (access to information), decentralized (allocation of resources) and horizontal (access to governance and decision making). All this is fundamentally incompatible with corporate models. 

During this event I realized that you can have 3 main attitudes with respect to open source innovation (open innovation in its pure sense).

  1. tabula rasa - Find a new self-sustainable system of production and distribution that fits on top of open source innovation. This assumes that this new mode of innovation dominates all the other ones and therefore, new modes of production will eventually self-organize around it, leading to a new type of economy. I personally bet on commons-based peer production and more precisely on the OVN model.
  2. opportunism - Find a way for existing corporations (or other classical structures or boxes) to capture the value through open source innovation. This leads to a dilution of the open source innovation concept to simply open innovation, and to the creation of hybrid models. This attitude assumes that the corporate model is still viable and that it can co opt the new modes of innovation. I personally think this is the wrong attitude. 
  3. pragmatism - Realize that open source innovation is dominating other forms of innovation, and that new modes of production will eventually structure around it (might be the OVN model). But in order to establish flows from the classical economy to the new during the transition period, we can create hybrid structures like Arduino, Adafruit and so on. 

The problem of bridging corporate models with open innovation is a false one, and can only be perceived as a problem during the transition. The new natural state of economic production is, in my opinion, Open Value Networks, because they build on open source.

See also my article Open Source Hardware meets the p2p economy




Saturday, February 22, 2014

Value cycle and value equation


Creative Commons (BY NC CA) licence granted by the author(s)

Disclaimer: This blog entry reflects the thoughts of the author and does not speak on behalf of the Sensorica community. Further, the work is built on the work of the Sensorica community on value equation. Moreover, the author has many views on the value equation and this blog represents only of the many perspectives. Lastly, the author assumes that the reader is familiar with concepts of Open-value network.
The current capitalistic economic model was designed in the industrial era to reflect the thoughts, culture, technology, knowledge and processes of that era.  In fact, our current economic model has been optimized to reflect the technological (information processing) capacity of industrial era. The era of internet, however, requires a new economic model and new efficiency mechanisms. In order to understand the notion of value equation, it is important to understand the value cycle and the efficiency mechanisms of the current economy.